Leakage in the US Economy: Examples, Tourism, TNCs, and Retail

Leakage in the US Economy Examples

In the most basic circular flow model, households and businesses trade consumer products and production inputs in exchange for money. Leakage occurs when savings are not spent on consumption and reduces the availability of funds for consumption.

Taxes transfer money from households and businesses to governments, reducing the amount available for households to purchase consumer goods and for businesses to invest in production inputs. This causes leakage.


Import leakage occurs when funds that were earned locally are used to purchase goods or services from foreign sources. This reduces the amount of money that is available to consumers and businesses in the economy. Leakage can be reduced by buying local products and staying in locally-owned accommodations. However, these measures may not be sufficient to eliminate all leakage. A more effective solution is to establish a border adjustment that addresses competitiveness risks and leakage.

To determine whether an economy is in equilibrium, you must sum the leakages (savings, taxes, and imports) and compare them with the injections (government spending, investment, and exports). Economy B should expand because its injections exceed its leakages. Economy A, on the other hand, will likely contract because its leakages are greater than its injections.


Tourism leakage is a problem that occurs when tourists spend money in businesses that don’t benefit the destination they visit. This is a problem for many countries, especially developing ones, and it can cause erosion of local culture.

This is often the result of tourists demanding products that the local economy cannot supply. This is called import leakage, and it can account for a large portion of tourism income for less-developed economies. In some cases, it may be up to 80% of tourist income.

It is possible to reduce tourism leakage by focusing on local products. This can be done by establishing linkages with the local community and encouraging hotels to use locally-produced food instead of imported goods. It also helps to partner with companies that offer a sustainable travel experience. This will help to increase tourism revenue and create a positive impact on the local economy. Examples of such partnerships include the American Prairie Reserve, which gives a percentage of its revenue to surrounding communities.


The assumption that market driven FDI is incompatible with growth oriented, liberal developmental priorities of LDCs is based on the flawed neo-classical concept of free and perfect markets. As a consequence of market imperfection TNCs are constantly re-shaping the functioning and structure of the market. This is particularly true where they engage in localising their FDI within countries with a different institutional arrangement.

TNCs are increasingly establishing techno-economic value orders in accordance with their own corporate strategies and also impose their management practices on suppliers. Suppliers are being forced to comply with TNC standards relating to procurement, production procedures and logistical systems. These are standards that far exceed average operational procedures within the industrial area in question.

Consequently, these suppliers are also becoming part of policy communities promoted by TNCs and their local agents. I have documented this in India in the chemical industry where TNCs are strengthening their control over suppliers by requiring them to follow specific life-cycle assessment.


Managing revenue leakage requires accurate data and a clear understanding of your business’s organizational structure. It’s also important to prioritize different types of leaks according to their economic value. This will help you determine the best tactics to improve your company’s overall profitability.

Leakage in economics refers to capital that diverges from some kind of iterative system, usually a depiction of the circular flow of income and expenditure in a Keynesian model. The non-consumption uses of income, such as savings, taxes, and imports, are “leaked” out of this flow, reducing the amount of money available throughout the economy.

A retail gap analysis estimates potential sales for a community, and compares these to actual sales to identify areas of weakness and opportunity. Retail sectors where actual sales are lower than expected are called “leakage” categories, and those where actual sales exceed expectations are “attraction” or “surplus” categories. Using this information, local businesses can develop strategic planning initiatives that take advantage of these opportunities.

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